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Annotated TOC / Lean / Six Sigma Bibliography by Jim Cox
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TOCICO Video Library
Annotated TOC / Lean / Six Sigma Bibliography
By James F. Cox III PhD
February 2014

Adams, G. (2008). Delta Air Lines Inc.: Meeting challenges in engine maintenance. TOCICO International Conference: 6th Annual Worldwide Gathering of TOC Professionals, Las Vegas, NE, Goldratt Marketing Group.
In 2005, Delta Air Lines filed for bankruptcy. Prior to its merger with North West Airlines, Delta was a $17 billion sales revenue airline with approximately 50,000 employees. After merger in 2008 Delta was a $35 billion top line revenue airline with the same number of maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) employees. As part of the bankruptcy plan, engine maintenance was required to reduce cost and inventory while, at the same time, increase productivity. In 2002 the MRO had revenues of $77 million and in 2008 the revenues were $470. The requirements for survival aligned very well with Theory of Constraints--more specifically, critical chain and drum-buffer-rope. The summary of changes includes: create plans with buffers in critical chain and in drum buffer rope; control the work-in-process inventories by controlling release; manage using the buffers, and use exception management. TOC concepts implemented in 2006 were to focus on constraints and improve overall engine maintenance performance using continuous improvement as the growth strategy. Six sigma and lean had previously been implemented. TOC concepts have given a clear understanding of where to apply six sigma and lean methods to achieve true bottom-line results.

Anderson, D. J. (2004). Feature-driven development: Toward a TOC, lean & six sigma solution for software engineering. TOCICO International Conference: 2nd Annual Worldwide Gathering of TOC Professionals, Miami, FL, Goldratt Marketing Group.
This presentation explains the TOC solution of critical chain project management (CCPM) for use in modern software engineering. Key learning points include: 1. How to use drum buffer rope (DBR) with software engineering; 2. How to use throughput accounting (TA) with software engineering; 3. Understanding useful variation in software engineering; 4. Provide a TOC enabled maturity model for software organizations; 5. Identifying what’s fundamentally wrong with the SEI CMMI and SW-CMM; 6. The integration points of a TOC software solution with six sigma, Deming, and Toyota Production System (TPS) principles and lean thinking. Benefits to attendees: 1. Benefits of applying DBR, CCPM and TA to technology development; 2. Contrast of the TOC approach with traditional approaches; 2. Benefits of using lean cumulative flow diagrams for the DBR solution.

Bergland, S. and G. D. Bergland (2009). Creating perfect harmony - How to solve the discords of TOCLSS. 1st Annual North American Regional TOCICO Conference, Tacoma, WA, Goldratt Marketing Group.
In an era of continuous improvement with overlapping methodologies it is important to understand where there is agreement and where there are differences. A seamless, mistake proof approach is what the customer desires for sustained bottom line improvements. This informative session will provide an understanding of key differences between TOC and lean / six sigma and the negative effects that can exist when misalignments are not recognized.

Field, R. M. (2009). Integrating lean, TOC, six sigma and ERP: Tying them together. 1st Annual North American Regional TOCICO Conference, Tacoma, WA, Goldratt Marketing Group.
Businesses leaning out their processes are faced with concepts that appear to be mutually exclusive or even conflicting. Common perspectives are do lean, OR do six sigma…lean OR TOC…and I can’t do lean AND ERP! This session explores strategic and tactical relationships of lean manufacturing, six sigma, theory of constraints and ERP. Included is a discussion on the impacts of an absorption costing policy on lean manufacturing results.

Fox, K. (2013). Using TOC to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of state government. TOCICO International Conference: 11th Annual Worldwide Gathering of TOC Professionals, Bad Nauheim, Germany, Theory of Constraints International Certification Organization.
The global economic troubles of the past few years have created significant challenges for governments around the world, and highlighted the critical importance of running government operations more effectively and efficiently. While TOC offers tremendous potential for government to make the great strides that are needed, it faces significant challenges in displacing the more common and less-effective methods, including: slashing services / programs, re-organization, technology investments, and lean / six sigma, among others. This presentation discusses the unique challenges government’s face (vs. for-profit organizations) both generally, and in applying TOC, and explores some novel techniques for launching and sustaining TOC in government organizations. We share examples and illustrations from several US states who have achieved success with TOC and who are now expanding their efforts state-wide.

Holt (moderator), J. R., et al. (2012). Panel discussion - TOC, lean, six sigma. TOCICO International Conference: 10th Annual Worldwide Gathering of TOC Professionals, Chicago, Il, Theory of Constraints International Certification Organization.
The panel of theory of constraints (TOC) and lean speakers includes: James Holt (moderator), Dee Jacob, Baha Inozu, Lisa Scheinkopf, Kevin Kohls, and discuss lean, six sigma and TOC blended together. Several topics were discussed some points are listed here. TOC puts lean/six sigma in the strategy and tactics (S&T) tree. Why do companies want to stay where they are? Usually measures (how many kiasan events have you held?) are ineffective and the company is comfortable where they are. Subordination means give up resources and budget! Managers don't want to do that. Savings translates into line items that should be reduced in budgets. Budget buffers might be a viable solution. The objective is to create companies that are successful now and in the future. TOC implementations should focus other efforts and be the over-arching philosophy. What is the problem that lean/six sigma is trying to solve that TOC doesn't address? Use the Standing on the Shoulders of Giants (SOSG) process to resolve problems in areas not addressed? For example, incorporating VMI with kanbans clashes with our dynamic buffering. Six sigma fits well in buffer management. Black and red zone variations are examples of processes out of control using six sigma. Lean and six sigma are not paradigm shifts; reducing waste and cost is under my control. TOC requires at least one paradigm shift usually many more if a holistic implementation. Throughput world mentality is counter intuitive. Between links in a supply chain there may be conflicts between lean and TOC.

Inozu, B. (2010). Injecting TOC with lean / six sigma into process improvement in healthcare. TOCICO International Conference: 8th Annual Worldwide Gathering of TOC Professionals, Las Vegas, NE, Goldratt Marketing Group.
A new best-of-the-breed approach to combine TOC concepts and tools with lean and six sigma in healthcare is shared. This approach is used when jump-starting a new continuous process improvement program or re-energizing an existing one. Strategies and tactics to overcome resistance are also presented when introducing TOC to lean and/or six sigma cultures. Examples are provided from interventional radiology, advanced cancer treatments, and laboratory turnaround times in emergency departments.

Inozu, B. (2011). Implementing constraints management with lean / six sigma: Lessons learned at Anadolu Medical Center. TOCICO International Conference: 9th Annual Worldwide Gathering of TOC Professionals, Palisades, NY, Goldratt Marketing Group.
The first twelve months of deploying a continuous performance improvement program, called Super, at Anadolu Medical Center in Turkey is discussed. The 201-bed hospital has begun implementing lean and six sigma with constraints management in an integrated manner. Examples are provided from improvement project selection that incorporates the thinking processes (TP), addressing policy constraints in the outpatient appointment process, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) repair and maintenance preparing process, the operating room (OR) process, and the inpatient medication order process, as well as results of a pilot study on dynamic replenishment for medical supplies.

Inozu, B. (2013). How to achieve superior performance improvement by integrating constraints management with lean and six sigma: Examples from government, public services and healthcare International Public Sector Effectiveness Conference 2013, Vilnius, Lithuania, TELE2
It has been demonstrated that low organizational productivity stems from a variety of root causes such as poor project due date performance, prolonged lead times, de-scoped or cancelled projects, cost and budget overruns. At the same time there are task overloads, poor coordination, severe and chronic multitasking, unclear and conflicting priorities as well as very complex processes. These problems lead to overloaded resources, burn-out and high turnover levels, causing general dissatisfaction, high stress levels, the general feeling of dissatisfaction and low morale of civil servants. Governments worldwide are beginning to see that leading management methodologies, which helped some innovative organizations develop effective solutions, can now produce the results that taxpayers are demanding. Today’s leading performance improvement methodologies are Lean (a systematic approach to eliminate waste), six sigma (a rigorous, data-driven process to eliminate defects), and constraints management (a.k.a. theory of constraints – a breakthrough methodology to identify and manage a system’s constraints). Proper integration of these methodologies results in a very structured, focused approach to process and performance improvement with system-level impact. Constraints management provides the missing element of where to focus improvements which is critical to maximizing the return on investment. In fact, the integration of lean and six sigma with constraints management often yields 10 to 20 times greater returns than by implementing lean and six sigma in isolation.

Jacob, D. and B. Mendenhall (2008). Project management in a lean world. TOCICO International Conference: 6th Annual Worldwide Gathering of TOC Professionals, Las Vegas, NE, Goldratt Marketing Group.
The objectives of this presentation are for the audience to: understand why applying lean / six sigma (LSS) to project management (PM) is difficult; translating LSS elements to project management environments; and PM techniques incorporating LSS. The presentation describes the background of lean, six sigma, and lean / six sigma in addition to the obstacles of applying LSS to PM; translating LSS into the project environment; and updating traditional project management for LSS. Numerous basic terms of lean (lean, lean thinking, waste, muda, value added, business value added, non-value added, categories of waste, and the building blocks of lean) are defined. Numerous basic terms of six sigma (six sigma, six sigma thinking, DMAIC phase steps, etc.) are defined. Today LSS is an integrated approach but it doesn’t translate into the project environment directly. Lean in multi-projects means the right quantity of projects at the right time with the correct content as quickly as possible to meet each project’s commitments. That definition translates to the individual project, the task priorities and the task management levels. The differences between activity and productivity are discussed as is the definition of productivity in the traditional project management environment. We need to look at productivity from the task instead of the resource perspective.

Kettell, K. (2004). CCPM: Five key success factors. TOCICO International Conference: 2nd Annual Worldwide Gathering of TOC Professionals, Miami, FL, Goldratt Marketing Group.
This presentation shows how critical chain project management (CCPM) was applied in a government MRO environment and has provided a powerful yet simple process for improving the fleet maintenance budget (FMB) project management team’s awareness and knowledge of ongoing work activity status and the ability to adapt and capitalize on short-fused schedule changes. Benefits to attendees include: 1. Understand the value of implementation for a highly complex multi-project environment; 2. Understand performance measures used to enhance throughput in a not-for-profit, government agency; 3. Understand the five key success factors for their own implementations.

Marris, P. (2013). TOC + lean + six sigma' or TLS. What is it? Is it a threat or an opportunity for TOC? TOCICO International Conference: 11th Annual Worldwide Gathering of TOC Professionals, Bad Nauheim, Germany, Theory of Constraints International Certification Organization.
Is 'TLS' – the integration or combination of TOC (T) with Lean (L) and Six Sigma (S) – a good idea? What does it mean exactly? How do they reinforce each other? What are the incompatibilities? What are the case studies? Is it an opportunity or a threat for the TOC movement? Industrial improvement efforts over the past 20 years have been handicapped by quarrels concerning the relative merits of the different approaches and of the supposed incompatibilities or fundamental differences among them. TLS considers, on the contrary, that we should seek to combine them thereby creating a system that contains the best aspects of each movement. The author, Philip Marris, is the CEO of Marris Consulting, Paris, France. He has implemented TOC with Lean and/or Six Sigma in industry over 50 times in the past 25 years. He manages the 'TLS – TOC, Lean & Six Sigma' LinkedIn discussion group.

Mays, G. and G. Adams (2007). A case study: The change and challenge in engine maintenance. TOCICO International Conference: 5th Annual Worldwide Gathering of TOC Professionals, Las Vegas, NV, Goldratt Marketing Group.
This presentation describes a case study of the change and challenge in engine maintenance. The history of the airline industry environment with deregulation and high oil prices is discussed. The characteristics of Delta Air Lines and the Maintenance / Repair / Overhaul facility (MRO, Technical Operations) are provided. Customer revenue growth has increased significantly as insourcing growth has been 440% per year for five years. This complex maintenance operation has been simplified using TOC, drum buffer rope (DBR) and Continuous Improvement (CI). The flow and challenges faced and throughput prior to TOC are discussed. A causal loop diagram of the flows and stocks is provided. A macro view of engine dis-assembly piece part repair and engine assembly is discussed. Critical chain (CC) is used in dis-assembly and assembly while DBR is used in piece part repair. A summary of changes, lessons learned, and results are provided. A history of continuous improvement included CI teams, high performance workplace, six sigma, lean enterprise, and theory of constraints. TOC concepts have provided a clear understanding of where to apply six sigma and lean methods to achieve true bottom line results. Changes to metrics focus on alignment operations with business goals.

Moura, E. (2010). The need to integrate TOC, lean, six sigma and management by processes. TOCICO Webinar Series. TOCICO, Theory of Constraints International Certification Organization.
In this presentation, the authors show the need and advantages of integrating TOC (Theory of Constraints), Lean Production System, Six Sigma and BMP (Business Management by Processes) into a coherent system for organizational development and improved business performance. Besides the unique contributions that each one of those methodologies provide, there is a synergistic effect between them that are not currently recognized and exploited in most organizations around the world. The vast majority of consulting companies typically specialize and offer just one of those methodologies, but their client companies do have a need to reap the benefits of a holistic approach, in order to continuously improve their competitiveness. The authors also emphasize the importance of creating an organizational environment where the know-how provided by those four methodologies are built upon a philosophical base (the know-why established by the core values, mission and long-term vision), with the improvement efforts oriented around a few critical aspects of the business system (the know-what summarized in the National Quality Award criteria). Guidance is also provided about how to start the practical implementation of the proposed approach, and a case study is presented.

Moura, E. (2012). Using the TOC TP as a guide to integrate lean, six sigma, process management and TOC solutions for business improvement. TOCICO International Conference: 10th Annual Worldwide Gathering of TOC Professionals, Chicago, Il, Theory of Constraints International Certification Organization.
The author presents a proven method that uses the theory of constraints (TOC) thinking processes (TP) from undesirable effects (UDEs) to strategy and tactics (S&T) trees to prioritize and integrate strategic business improvement initiatives such as lean, six sigma, process management and specific TOC solutions. Real implementation examples are presented.

Petrarolo, D. (2004). Focused lead time & variability reduction at SAB. TOCICO International Conference: 2nd Annual Worldwide Gathering of TOC Professionals, Miami, FL, Goldratt Marketing Group.
This paper describes the integration of TOC, lean and six sigma tools to form the core of SAB Ltd.'s Focused Lead Time and Variability Reduction drive. Key learning points include: 1. Creating an improvement infrastructure; 2. Ensuring focus on the right areas of the value chain 3. Ensuring bottom line results; 4. Integrating TOC, lean and six sigma processes into organizational work practices; 5. Progress achieved to date. Benefits to attendees: 1. Gaining insights on how to create an appropriate infrastructure and state of readiness for lean / six sigma implementation. 2. How to ensure bottom line results from your improvement initiative. 3. World class manufacturing (WCM), lean, six sigma and TOC – where to next.

Pirasteh, R. (2007). TLS continuous improvement trio: Is it not the time to think differently? TOCICO International Conference: 5th Annual Worldwide Gathering of TOC Professionals, Las Vegas, NV, Goldratt Marketing Group.
This presentation provides an overview of theory of constraints, lean and six sigma. A case study is presented where the effects of using the trio of theory of constraints, lean, and six sigma (TLS); lean alone and six sigma alone is conducted. The use of TOC to guide lean and six sigma use was significantly better than either lean or six sigma alone. Lessons learned are also presented. The purpose of the study was to determine how to best optimize profits. To achieve that objective we needed to compare and contrast methodologies and evaluate and statistically quantify the impact of each. Based on the results we wanted to deploy the best method. The results of twenty-one plants were compared: eleven used six sigma, four used lean and six used TLS. The results of comparing lean and six sigma were insignificant. The difference between TLS and lean and six sigma was highly significant (P-value =0.000.). While TLS, lean and six sigma all offered benefits, TLS showed 3.9 times greater financial benefit than the other two. A model of how the three methodologies fit together is provided.

Wadhwa, G. (2007). Viable Vision: Achievable in healthcare. TOCICO International Conference: 5th Annual Worldwide Gathering of TOC Professionals, Las Vegas, NV, Goldratt Marketing Group.
This presentation is a case study of Adirondack Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery clinic and their first (achieved by using TOC/lean/six sigma) and second (achieved by using the transformational strategy and tactic (S&T) tree and the decisive competitive edges of reliability and rapid response) Viable Vision. Gary Wadhwa, MD, provided his background in education, in business, operations, lean, six sigma, system dynamics, balanced scorecard, theory of constraints, etc. and how he implemented these tools at his medical practice to transform it from a break-even practice to making several million dollars in profit each year. He discusses the use of throughput accounting and the transformational S&T tree to determine the impact of the product mix on profits and eventually how to free up enough capacity to also do 30-40% pro-bono work while still making high profits.

Woeppel, M. (2009). Introduction to TLS continuous improvement. 1st Annual North American Regional TOCICO Conference, Tacoma, WA, Goldratt Marketing Group.
Many organizations struggle with their continuous improvement efforts; achieving real bottom line results, whether in cost savings or increased revenues, has proven to be difficult. In spite of the widespread implementation of lean and six sigma principles, poor results persist. The TLS (theory of constraints, lean, and six sigma) process generates 15-20 times better performance than lean or six sigma. Mark Woeppel shows the root causes of poor continuous improvement program performance and a systematic framework to create ongoing bottom line results.

Zahora, J. and J. Zahora (2009). The PECo journey: The fusion of theory of constraints, lean and six sigma-Velocity. 1st Annual North American Regional TOCICO Conference, Tacoma, WA, Goldratt Marketing Group.
Process Equipment Company (PECo), a US manufacturer, has faced and continues to face fierce global competition in challenging economic situations. PECo looked beyond the choice of either TOC, lean or six sigma and realized that all methodologies had strengths if utilized in an integrated fashion. PECo turned to AGI’s focused system improvement (FSI) process, a true TOCLSS (TLS) integrated process, to maintain competitiveness and actually grow market share. This same FSI process guides PECo as they continue to sustain profitable growth during this latest economic downturn.