Become a Member! | Print Page | Your Cart | Report Abuse | Sign In
Share |


TOCICO International Conference - PROGRAM


July 16-19, 2017
Melia Hotel in Berlin, Germany.

 Jelena Fedurko-Cohen - Co-Founder and Co-President TOC Practitioners Alliance

 In the workshop I present an outcome of six years of development work with companies helping them understand the inherent logic of the S&T Trees and techniques of constructing it. I present rules, examples, and exercises that I have developed in the four areas of constructing an S&T Tree:

  • the content of the entities in the S&T boxes;
  • the relationship between the entities within the same box;
  • the vertical relationship between the S&T boxes;
  • the S&T structure.

The Strategy and Tactic (S&T) Tree is the most comprehensive tool in the portfolio of TOC logical tools. The standard S&T Trees were developed by Dr. Eli Goldratt and cover major TOC logistical applications. They are available through various TOC resources like TOCICO, Goldratt Consulting, or Goldratt Research Labs. Standard S&T Trees provide managers with a good foundation and starting point to learn the essence and structure of standard TOC logistical solutions, and how these solutions are reflected in relevant S&T Trees.
However, we often see that when there is a need to adapt an existing S&T Tree to a specific company, or to build a fully customized S&T Tree from scratch, this represents a major challenge for many companies, managers, and TOC practitioners.
The frequent questions are:

  • How do I know what exactly I should write in each entity type?
  • How can I be sure that what I wrote is actually this type of entity?
  • How do Strategies and Tactics in boxes on different levels relate between themselves?

Those who attempt building their own S&T Tree often find it very frustrating. The final outcome is quite often not up to the high expectations the management team had when starting the construction of their S&T. One of the reasons why constructing an S&T Tree is so challenging is that this tool has the fewest recorded guidelines and instructions on how to construct it. In 2016, I wrote a book A Good Strategy & Tactic Tree that is aimed at closing this gap. I addressed the issue of common difficulties and confusion working with S&T in 2011 in the my article “Some Thoughts about Populating and Communicating an S&T Tree,” in the Goldratt Schools book Leading People Through Change.
Before the S&T Tree was formalized in the format well known to everyone professionally involved with TOC, the TOC body of knowledge already had a set of well-developed Thinking Process trees that record:

  • the analysis of the present state – the Current Reality Tree (CRT)
  • the logical check of the validity of the developed solution to cause the future state – the Future Reality Tree (FRT)
  • the roadmap to remove the identified obstacles to implement the solution – the Prerequisite Tree (PrT)
  • the transfer of the knowledge and logic for the new set of instructions to implement the solution – the Transition Tree (TrT)

While the trees for recording the current state (CRT) and the future state (FRT) are comprehensive and describe all aspects of the analyzed part of the system – as is and as it will be, the PrT and TrT each cover only a specific facet related to moving from the current state to a future state. The PrT deals specifically with obstacles, but does not speak about the actions that do not result from dealing with obstacles; the TrT only transfers instructions for achieving individual intermediate objectives (IOs) on the PrT.

A comprehensive tool was needed to cover the whole system in the process of transition from the current reality to the future reality – a tool that would provide a framework for the structured recording of the steps needed to be taken in transition and would give their logical justification. This brought about the development of the Strategy & Tactics Tree.

The biggest difference between the S&T Tree and other trees, however, is in the structural content of boxes.

While each box on CRT, FRT, PrT, TrT contains only ONE entity – a short sentence that must NOT include any cause-effect relationship inside it,

In the S&T each box:

  • contains FIVE different types of entities;
  • these different entities are recorded in five rows, one below another within the box;
  • the entities inside an S&T box do not have any arrows linking them in any way;
  • an entity may include several sentences;
  • an entity may include a cause and effect relationship.

The difference between the content of the boxes in S&T and compared to CRT/FRT/PrT/TrT is dictated by the purpose of the boxes.

The purpose of a box in a CRT, FRT, PrT and TrT is to establish a cause-effect relationship between examined entities and to indicate sufficiency within a cluster of entities.

The purpose of each box on the S&T Tree is dictated by the fact that every box is a step on the way the system takes to achieve the ultimate goal – the box at the very top. The scale of the activities that every step lists explicitly or implies goes from very global and generic on higher levels, to gradually narrower and more detailed with each lower level.

The biggest challenge in implementing change is making it happen. Without the collaboration of people whose lives are going to be affected by the change, it is hardly possible. Ability to recognize what change means for people, and their reaction towards the proposed initiative, is crucial for leaders. They must understand how to influence the attitude of their people, and how to build agreement and enthusiasm towards achieving the required improvements.

In the presentation I will discuss the following aspects relevant to working with Layers of Resistance:

  • The difference between the desired change and one imposed from the outside, and how each type manifests in people’s behaviors. The presentation will be focused on working with the resistance to change that has been imposed on a person from outside.
  • The difference between the resistance to a suggested change at the stage of offering an idea, and the resistance to change at the stage of implementation – after the change has been decided upon.
  • How to recognize from the response of the communication counter partner which Layer of Resistance the person is speaking from.
  • The common confusion between Layer 4 (perceived potential outcomes) and Layer 5 (obstacles).
  • Is it possible to recognize whether the person is speaking from Layer 4 or 5 or is the reservation that sounds as Layer 4 or 5 just a disguise for Layer 2 (direction of the solution)?
  • How to quickly reconstruct the reservation from Layer 1 (disagreement on the problem) into a Cloud.
  • How to quickly unfold Level 4 reservation into an NBR without a risk of ‘losing’ the communication counter partner.

Jelena Fedurko is a TOC Expert that provides TOC consultancy and education worldwide through tocExpert and TOC Strategic Solutions,

Together with Oded Cohen, she is a Co-founder and Co-president of TOC Pracitioners Alliance – TOCPA,, a nonprofit international organisation giving those interested in TOC the opportunity and ability to grow their knowledge and address the practical issues in implementing TOC. TOCPA operates as a platform of sharing TOC experience by conducting TOCPA conferences and master classes. The extensive library of TOC video and pdf materials is freely accessible on

From 2005 to 2012 Jelena was a part of Goldratt Group as a Goldratt Schools faculty member and Regional Director first for Russian Speaking Regions, and later also for Europe. Jelena took part in training hundreds of Application Experts for Viable Vision projects in many countries.

Jelena’s involvement with TOC started in 1999 when she translated the Goldratt Satellite Program into Russian. This was followed by the translation of the books The Goal, It’s Not Luck (The Goal-2), Critical Chain, and TOC Insights. Within the framework of tocExpert, TOC Strategic Solutions, and TOCPA. Jelena works with companies and individuals across the globe. She is involved in TOC implementations, develops TOC teaching material, conducts TOC training programs, and provides implementation support in production, supply chain, distribution and retail, project management and people management.

Jelena is the author of four profound TOC books on working with the central logical tools of TOC Thinking Processes – the Cloud and the Strategy and Tactic Tree. Her books Behind the Cloud: Enhancing logical thinking (2011) Through Clouds to Solutions: Working with UDEs and UDE Clouds (2013), Mistakes and Difficulties in Working with TOC Logical Tools (2014), and A Good Strategy & Tactic Trees (2016) are significant contributions to the TOC body of knowledge. Together with Oded Cohen, Jelena co-authored the book Theory of Constraints Fundamentals (2012). She was a contributing author for a Goldratt Schools series of TOC bookson Production Management, CCPM, and Change Management, and has authored numerous articles on TOC concepts and implementation She is editor and a member of a reviewing team for a number of leading TOC books. Jelena, together with Oded Cohen, writes frequent posts on tocExpert blog ‘Serious Talk about TOC.’ She regularly gives presentations and workshops at TOC conferences worldwide.

Jelena graduated with honors from Minsk State Linguistic University (equal to Hons. MA) in1985, and received her MBA Cum Laude from Concordia University (now part of Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia) in 1999.